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Marine Ornamental Fish & Invertebrate Breeders • View topic - Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby MOFIB » Sun Aug 19, 2007 10:08 pm




1 - Species covered in this forum:

The Family Tetraodontidae - fish in this family are often referred to as "Pufferfishes". This family includes popular species such as:
- the "Guineafowl puffer"
- the "Crowned puffer"
- the "Valentines Pufferfish"

For an overview of the Tetraodontidae, see http://www.fishbase.org/identification/ ... &areacode=

2 – Common characteristics:
Provide base information on the group, focusing primarily on care needs (i.e. diets, sizes, whatever is relevant or important for a fish keeper working with this particular group)

For more basic information, visit - http://www.wetwebmedia.com/puffers.htm

3 – Reproduction:

3.1 – Sex determination:
Separate sexes;
Sequential hermaphrodites (protogynous);
Sequential hermaphrodites (protandric);
Simultaneous hermaphrodites;
- select appropriate options - provide additional information where possible


3.2 – Sexual organization:
Pairs;
Harems (multi-females);
Harems (multi-male);
Groups;
- select appropriate options - provide additional information as possible.

3.3 – Sexing:
Sexual dimorphism; provide details where possible
Sexual dichromatism; provide details where possible
No Information / Not Applicable;

3.4 - Pairing / Setting Up Broodstock:
Provide basic techniques for establishing breeding pairs in captivity, if known.

3.5 – Courtship:
Describe courtship / signs of impending mating etc, if known.

3.6 – Spawning:

Describe spawning behavior, if known.

4 – Eggs:

4.1 – Size:
List size - again, if there are ranges, note for what species etc..

4.2 – Quantity:
List quantity or quantity ranges as known...if varies with species, provide multiple species information if possible.

4.3 – Characteristics
Include items like egg shape, color, are there oil droplets (and if so, how many), are the eggs boyant or do they sink, are they adhesive? List out by species if appropriate

4.4 – Incubation period/Hatching temp:
List time and temp if applicable.

5 – Larvae:

5.1 – Size at hatching: enter size
5.2 – Yolk sac present at hatch: Yes/No
5.3 – Mouth present at hatch: Yes/No
5.4 – Eyes developed at hatch: Yes/No

6 - Rearing:

6.1 - Breeding & Rearing Techniques
Brief synopsis / special notes of any rearing techniques available.

6.2 – Day at first feeding:
List date / time at which larvae first feed.

6.3 - Starvation Time:
If known, include the time post-hatch that larval will live without feeding. This can often be found in larval studies where scientists do not feed the larvae

6.4 – Feeding scheme:
First Foods, progression, whatever is appropriate based on current information and experiences. List any special techniques / timelines available.

6.5 – Age at meta:
Text Description as required...

7 – Species been reared successfully
Scientific name - followup with notes on individuals / companies successfully rearing. If only partial successes have been made, list those.

8 – References

8.1 - Articles

List any Articles/reference availabe in print.

8.2 - Web Content
List weblinks for online content
Description of link - http://www.wherever.com/ (AKA. the link)

8.3 - Books
List any books that contain "Breeding-Relevant" information to this group.

9 - Compiled By
Your Name - Your Login - your email (optional)
Last Update: Month, Day and Year you last editted the file
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Postby Clownfish75 » Thu Apr 10, 2008 5:47 pm

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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby r33fking » Mon May 03, 2010 1:50 pm

i really need to find some info on C.valentini ive got a pair coming in a week .
im fine on the husbandry . just not sure on breeding
are they egg scatterers ?
brood tenders?
im getting conflicting info online .
any help would be great
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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby Midnight Angel » Mon May 03, 2010 2:27 pm

According to Matthew Wittenrich's book (also known as Witt here btw) they are demersal brood tenders. But I know from personal conversations with him that he knows a little more. I'm not sure how much he can tell us but I'll see if I can get him to post here. Just please hang in there because the man is knee deep in trying to get his degree and is super busy. But like I said I'll see what I can do. :wink:


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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby Midnight Angel » Tue May 04, 2010 10:31 am

I just heard from Witt and he is out of town now but will post here when he gets back. I have no idea when that will be so just hang in there.


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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby spawner » Tue May 04, 2010 11:18 am

Maritech reared the yellow/black dogface in 2001 or so. I'll get the information about spawning and larval rearing. I think I can get photos of the early larvae. I think they got 50 or so through. Lost most of them after metamorphosis. I'll check up and confirm.

They are very similar to triggerfish. There has been a lot of work done on a few marine species, small eggs, benthic spawners 700um eggs or so. Some species will eat a rotifer at first feeding. My impression of the dogface that maritech was working on was that the larvae were very small but rubost, between a filefish and a triggerfish larvae.
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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby Midnight Angel » Tue May 04, 2010 2:07 pm

Thanks Andy :D


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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby Kmiec123 » Wed May 05, 2010 10:52 am

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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby spawner » Thu May 06, 2010 7:06 am

There is a lot of literature on the spawning of this group. Clownfish posted some references on Canthigaster above. Here are the links. If you need the papers PM me and I'll see what I can do. Most of the work has been conducted recently on Sphoeroides annulatus in Mexico. There is a lot of good papers if you Google the species name.


Canthigaster
http://www.springerlink.com/content/h803u4151158758k/
http://www.jstor.org/pss/1446061
http://www.wdc-jp.biz/pdf_store/isj/pub ... /35212.pdf


Spawning behavior and early life history of the sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rivulata , in the aquarium
http://www.springerlink.com/content/t497662621066473/

Hiroshi Arai1 Contact Information and Shiro Fujita2
(1) Ueno Zoo Aquarium, Ueno Zoological Gardens, Ueno Park, Taito-ku, 110 Tokyo, Japan
(2) Ichthyological Laboratory, Tokyo University of Fisheries, 5-7, Konan-4, Minatoku, 108 Tokyo, Japan

Abstract Specimens of Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck et Schlegel) were collected from Kominato and Hayama, central Japan, from May, 1985 to October, 1986. On the basis of the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology and results of artificial fertilization of these specimens, the spawning season is considered to extend from late June to mid-September. The specimens exhibited the following dimorphic differences associated with sex: 1) The male is larger than the female. 2) Ventral side of the body is brownish orange in the male with vermiculated or reticulated patterns of bright violet, while it is white in the female. 3) The male has a well-developed skin fold along the mid-dorsal and mid-ventral lines, which is greatly elevated during courtship; whereas the female’s skin folds are not or slightly developed and conspicuous only during courtship. In an aquarium with the water temperatures of 22 to 26°C, a pair of fish spawned every four days late in the morning for three consecutive months. Courtship and spawning occurred in a pair. The male swam in front of the female, and elevated the skin folds both dorsally and ventrally, fully spreading the unpaired fins, with the ventral side of the body flashing bright blue and the dorsal side turning dark. Both fish swam in a circular fashion, elevating the skin folds. The male followed the female nudging her abdomen with his snout. Both fish turned upward, and released gametes. The eggs are spherical, 0.53–0.73 mm in diameter, demersal, adhesive, transparent, and pale yellowish orange in color, and contain a cross-shaped or asteroid cluster of oil globules. The egg membrane was thick and consisted of about 14 concentric layers. The incubation period ranged from 73.5 hours at 28.2–28.5°C to 145.0 hours at 22.1–22.4°C. The newly hatched larvae were 1.38–1.98 mm in total length (TL) with 84-11-13 = 19–21 myomeres. The yolk was absorbed when the larvae attained 1.49–2.22 mm TL, three days after hatching. The larvae were fed on oyster larvae, blue mussel larvae, sea-urchin larvae and rotifers, but all of them died in 16 days. During the embryonic and early larval stages, the only pigment cells that appeared on the body were the black chromatophores.
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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby Witt » Thu May 06, 2010 2:34 pm

Most of the available information has been cited above and there isn't much more I can add. Canthigaster spp. are amazing little puffers with loads of potential so I imagine many more hobbyists will start tackling them. With success like Andy Rhyne's queen triggers it is only a matter of time before more people start tackling fish from this odd order of bony fishes. Canthigaster spp. live either in pairs or harems. In harem situations the male patrols a large territory wherein each female establishes a smaller domain. He visits and courts each female in the morning hours and attempts to 'lure' her back to a chosen spawning site. The most difficult part with spawning these fish would be obtaining a 'compatible' pair. I have maintained harems of C. rostrata that eventually widdle themselves down to pairs in all but the biggest tank. The male doesn't get interested until spawning time, but male-male pairs and female-female pairs typically fight to the death. The supraoccipital bone of males is larger giving them a distinct humped appearance right behind the head and they are typically much larger than the ladies. Courtship is amazing to watch and you would sware you were looking at filefish. The male and sometimes the female to a lesser extent expand the skin on the dorsal and ventral surfaces and flatten themselves out vertically while swimming around each other and eventually to a clump of algae or dug out sand pit. Check Martin Moe's new book for a shot of C. rostrata engaged in this courtship. Larvae are small, but as we have seen time and time again, small larvae are definitely not impossible.
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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby r33fking » Fri May 07, 2010 3:35 am

thank you all sooo much for your time !
do you think s strain rots will due?
any info on pair formation /maintenance would be great ( ive been working with blennies and i know its not JUST about obtaining a male and a female
finesse is required ).
p.s. i was talking with one of my suppliers and he had mentioned a nice bunch of BLUE SPOTTED YELLOW TAIL TOBIES? anyone have any clue what species he would be referring too? as he had no clue when i asked.
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Re: Puffer Fish Breeding/Spawning Overview - Tetraodontidae

Postby Witt » Sat May 08, 2010 4:27 pm

The smallest rotifer strains might get you by if you enrich them like crazy, but I imagine a smaller, more nutritious food item would be required. You never know til you try though. This is sort of the changing mindset lately as we have seen a lot stranger things happen over the last few years. Pairing C. valentini should be a very straightforward endeavor if you have heterosexuals. I would not, however, try to pair them until after they have been conditioned for a few weeks and are looking alert, healthy, and rotund. In most cases failure at pairing fish comes from inadequate body condition. Get them healthy, then try to pair them. The blue spotted toby would most likely be one of two species, but common names, as always, are a challenge. C. solandri is probably the most common, but dozens of species of toby's are out there.
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