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Marine Ornamental Fish & Invertebrate Breeders • View topic - About Calanoid Copepods

About Calanoid Copepods

About Calanoid Copepods

Postby Luis A M » Mon May 14, 2007 4:10 pm

Calanoids are the pelagic organisms that constitute mainly the ocean´s plankton.Immense biomass of them drifts in the sea,like insects on land and air.They feed on phytoplankton and they are eaten by small fish.Their larvae,called nauplii, are the natural food for larval fish and crustacea.They have the perfect size,shape,movements,nutrients and even self digesting enzimes to make them the best larval food,both in the oceans as in our tanks.
In this thread we will discuss what they are,how to get them,culture them and it´s use as larval food.
I started culturing them some years ago,and since 2001 I keep a thriving colony of Acartia tonsa.So I can share how I do it which is a mix of different scientific methods and my practical hobby based experience with them.
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Postby KathyL » Mon May 14, 2007 7:26 pm

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Calanoids vs Harpacticoids

Postby Luis A M » Tue May 15, 2007 3:23 pm

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Re: Calanoids vs Harpacticoids

Postby mpedersen » Tue May 15, 2007 4:08 pm

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Postby KathyL » Tue May 15, 2007 5:54 pm

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Re: Calanoids vs Harpacticoids

Postby BaboonScience » Tue May 15, 2007 10:40 pm

"The exact contrary of what is generally believed is often the truth" Jean De La Bruyère (1645-1696)
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Re: Calanoids vs Harpacticoids

Postby Luis A M » Wed May 16, 2007 1:35 am

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Postby BaboonScience » Wed May 16, 2007 1:55 am

Yep, Please proceed.
Agreed, marine cyclopoids can be treated the same as calanoids.
Benthics are good for reef type systems as they are interstitial in the sand bed and are always producing young. Potential resource?
The other thought is that the time to maturity gives some species a limited usefulness. Species selection for culture purposes is important because you need the shorter life cycle to build cultures in a reasonable time frame.
"The exact contrary of what is generally believed is often the truth" Jean De La Bruyère (1645-1696)
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Postby KathyL » Wed May 16, 2007 8:39 am

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Re:

Postby Luis A M » Wed May 16, 2007 1:05 pm

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Re: Calanoids vs Harpacticoids

Postby Luis A M » Wed May 16, 2007 2:00 pm

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Re:

Postby KathyL » Wed May 16, 2007 2:30 pm

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Which ones?

Postby Luis A M » Wed May 16, 2007 2:56 pm

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Postby KathyL » Wed May 16, 2007 4:39 pm

Ahhhhh, I am turning pinker, but still a bit hypoxic.

Thank you so much for that, and now may we continue?
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Postby KathyL » Thu May 17, 2007 8:28 am

What is good culture management?
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Re:

Postby Luis A M » Thu May 17, 2007 2:15 pm

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Postby KathyL » Thu May 17, 2007 2:38 pm

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How to obtain calanoids?

Postby Luis A M » Thu May 17, 2007 4:39 pm

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Postby KathyL » Thu May 17, 2007 8:02 pm

I think we have a mystery novel here, with cliff hanger chapters....

Will the copepods grow? Will there be better copepods from the lagoon or the rivulet mouth, or the penisula bay? Will they eat the Isochrysis, or the Tetraselmus? Will they lay eggs? Will they survive in the Coke bottle at room temperature? Can we take them home?

When can we get to the next chapter?
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How to keep stock cultures.

Postby Luis A M » Sat May 19, 2007 3:56 pm

Here´s a "how to"description of my method for keeping calanoid stocks indefinitely.It is very simple and demanding very little work or materials.
It is in fact so easy that I see no excuse why cultures of many different calanoid species are not being kept and starter cultures available for interested parties,which I´m sure are many.
If we keep in the "recipe"style,here are the ingredients:

Plastic gallon jars,wide mouthed and made of clear PET.I don´t know if they are found anywhere.They are very practical,I also use them for rearing larval shrimp (future thread).
53,100 and 200 micron sieves.I make mine out of clear sections of acrylic pipe,8x6cm.This size fits in Petri dishes and under a diss.microscope,which comes very handy for observations.
Live algae.T-ISO works fine and is very easy to grow.Same for TET.
RHO is said to be better,but a little more touchy.Since this is the most limiting factor,I tried to find if they can be reared with frozen TET paste.It can be done but is very difficult,I failed 9 of every 10 times.
Air pump,valves,tubing
ASW.I use IO

Fill a jar with one of the collected bottles and fill up to 3 L with ASW of the same salinity.For estuarine species,such as A.tonsa,I use 1.010.
Provide gentle air bubbling.
Feed 100 ml of a dense algal culture every day.
That´s it.Simple,huh? :)

If you started with purchased calanoids or eggs,it is just the same,you put them in the jar and fill up to 3L.

Well cared cultures seem to last indefinitely,never seem to get old as most other cultures we know.But they can crash sometimes,so 3-4 jars of each species must be kept at all times.

In wild cultures,usually only one species from each bottle (location) develops,but occasionally we can have two or more species together in culture.This is not a problem and in the long run only one species prevails.
In certain times and locations,barnacle nauplii,clam veliger larvae and other such planktonic organisms come in our wild stock bottles,and thrive in our cultures until they settle and can be removed.
Culture contamination with Artemia and rotifers can always happen in the fish room and we must be very careful to avoid it.Artemia is not a big problem, they will grow and can be removed later.But rotifers will quickly outgrow and kill a calanoid culture.If you see one or two rotifers when checking for nauplii (explained later),you must act immediately and drastically,or you´ll lose all your stocks.You must dispose of the contaminated jar,and wash thoroughly.If it is your only culture and you want to save it,it can be done.You must flush the culture in a 200 mic.sieve with at least 20 L of water everyday for one week,moving to a clean jar.After that,keep watching until you are sure they were erradicated.
Cultures don´t need any direct light and can be kept at normal fish room temperature.
To check the calanoids best way is with a flashlight playing obliquely from above,against a black background.
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Postby KathyL » Sat May 19, 2007 5:54 pm

Thank you Luis,
Do the cultures need water changes eventually?
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Re:

Postby Luis A M » Sat May 19, 2007 7:36 pm

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Postby KathyL » Sat May 19, 2007 9:59 pm

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Postby aomont » Sat May 19, 2007 11:01 pm

Anderson

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Postby Luis A M » Sat May 19, 2007 11:45 pm

Round,Kathy.Not common there?.Need a pic?
As many as they come,Anderson,they somehow control their population.I haven´t counted the adults,but nauplii occur at variable densities from 0 to 15 /ml.
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