Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby Luis A M » Tue May 24, 2011 2:54 pm

Recently a new calanoid copepod has been introduced in the market of live food for aquaculture and hobby.As it´s ID was uncertain,as it was it´s origin,it was given a fancy commercial name:"Tangerines".
Which fits it well,as most (not all,some are white)of them are bright red.Not only adults but also naups and eggs.In this aspect they remind closely those FW subarctic cyclopoids sold as "Cyclopeeze".
The story of these remarkable newcomers goes more or less like this:they came to USA as contaminants in some Moina salina shipments from Angi,of Germany.I think it was Jim W.who first noticed them.He kindly gave me some of them mixed in Moina cultures,so I could try and have them IDd.
Isolating them was simply done by sieving them with a mesh that retained the smallest Moina,but let the red naups go thru.I cultured them with my standard technique and when I had enough numbers,I sent samples to locals Drs Hoffman and Berasategui for an ID.
Which proved very difficult;these calanoids didn´t fit in any of the available keys,not even at the family level!.It happens that copepodologysts specialize either in marine or continental copepods and care little of those out of their field.But there is a whole calanoid family,the diaptomids,which is completely FW (or better from"continental"waters).They are so ignored by marine copepodologysts that they were completely excluded in Mauchline´s book,one of the most important calanoid references.
At last they went to check it in the FW keys,and sure enough,it proved to be a diaptomid and belonging to the genus Arctodiaptomus,with many FW species.
At the same time,I was trying to find more about the origin of these copepods,because knowing the original collection site,would shed some light to the ID process,as most keys are regional. Asking about the Moina,as the copepods were unnoticed hitchhikers.Angi obtained the Moina from a large biomass producer in Poland,who said that almost certainly they came from Spain,though some few came from France.Further search showed that both species,M.salina and A.salinus frequently coexist in the same salt ponds.
Because they are not,as I assumed,marine forms that enter coastal lagoons or estuaries like so many of our cultured copepods;they belong to FW families which had adapted to live in the harsh conditions of inland salt water bodies.
A.salinus is well known with students of these biotopes,they inhabit salt lakes in Russia and China,they can take extreme temp variations and salinity of at least twice that of the sea.
They filter feed on algae and even on sulphur bacteriae,in certain biotopes,as Angi pointed to me.But at the same time they can be fierce raptorial predators.A paper shows that they can overpower and devour adult Brachionus rotundiformis!.I wonder if this couldn´t mean a hazard for our tiny larvae :?
Another interesting aspect of it´s life story,is that the salt ponds where it and Moina live,frequently completely dry,with their eggs remaining viable buried in the bottom soil.This is how Moina is often collected;dry sand is taken and rehydrated later.Eggs with this capability are frequent in FW organisms,but seldom happen in SW.
Anyway,these copepods are easy to culture,hardy and a welcome new food resource.They are large,both adults and nauplii,so perhaps they could,like Moina,be a good food for small synghnatids.
The last aspect to be considered is their nutritional value,which is poor in some non marine organisms we commonly use,like artemia and rotifers.But,being a calanoid,it could possibly synthetize long chain fatty acids.I found at least some report of the HUFA content of A.salinus,which seemed to be different in different biotopes.Andy R.thinks that this intense red colour must be a hint of nutritional richness,particularly carotenes like asthaxantine,as in Cyclopeeze.
So we must now try this new copepod with an amazing story.Please share here your experiences with it! 8)
Luis
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby BaboonScience » Tue May 24, 2011 6:49 pm

Luis
Very interesting tale. I have these copepods on my list of culture organisms to try. I almost purchased a culture two weeks ago.
Any idea of the food particle size? If they can overpower a rotifer, then they must be able to accept the larger alga species.
John
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby Luis A M » Wed May 25, 2011 12:06 am

BaboonScience wrote:Luis
Very interesting tale. I have these copepods on my list of culture organisms to try. I almost purchased a culture two weeks ago.
Any idea of the food particle size? If they can overpower a rotifer, then they must be able to accept the larger alga species.
John

Food size ranges all the way from bacteriae to rotifers! :shock: But calanoids can take any sized microalga,actually,the larger,the better.Marcus-Murray had their best results with dinos,some about 50 mics.But dinos are harder to mass produce. :(
Our well known Acartia is also a predator and a filter feeder.Only that it preys in nauplii,not in rotifers :wink:
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby BaboonScience » Wed May 25, 2011 5:16 pm

Luis
You list a couple of books here. Sounds like I should add them to my library.
I was wondering if you could reference them.
"The exact contrary of what is generally believed is often the truth" Jean De La Bruyère (1645-1696)
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby Luis A M » Wed May 25, 2011 6:37 pm

Well,Nancy Marcus is a well known researcher from Fl.She had several papers on calanoid resting eggs.
J.Mauchline-The biology of Calanoid Copepods-Academic Press-1998.
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby johnrt » Thu May 26, 2011 2:11 am

Thank you Luis for all that research.

The fact that they are from an hypersaline environment my explain why I managed to lose my original culture from Jim and may have lost my new one from AlgaGen as well. I was culturing them at the low end of what was suggested on the AlgaGen site as I had known that they were originally isolated from Jim's Moina culture and the Moina are doing fine.

Oh well. People were offering the best advice they could with the data they had on hand. I will try boosting the salinity of my rapidly declining AlgaGen culture and see if I can turn it around.

Thank you again. John T
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby Luis A M » Thu May 26, 2011 1:55 pm

John.I am keeping them at 1.010.I don´t know however which the preferred SG for this species (or Moina) is.It would be a nice project for our research forum if cultures are run at different salinities so we can establish the minimum,ideal and maximum for this species :wink:
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby angi » Sat May 28, 2011 4:10 am

Hi,

I am keeping mine since some years in different tanks with 8 ppm to 40 ppm. They reproduce well in all tanks :-) I have them in outdoor tanks. They survive our severe winters with temperatures up to minus 26 degrees. As soon as there are temperatures of approx. 8° degrees Celsius, they are active again. I have breed seahorses for years with that. And I achieve an over-life quota of roughly 100 per cent with this food. So the nutritional value seems to be extremely good.
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby vrado » Sat May 28, 2011 8:51 pm

Luis, thank you for researching and posting this information. I knew part of the story from Erik and how easily they were cultured at Algagen. The Tangerine name came from the bright orange eggs they produce. We all thought this species would have broad applications along with good nutritional value. As it's now avaialble to many breeders, lets hope theres some good reports with new species.
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby Luis A M » Fri Jun 03, 2011 3:28 pm

3 good news about tangerines:
The red pigment seems to be concentrated in little red spheres within the body.Dr.Berasategui,who dissected them,says that these little balls are oil vacuoles.Sounds promising for the nutritional profile 8)
I have found in a research posted elsewhere,that A.salinus as well as other copepods can be successfully raised on algae pastes.This is remarkably good news for breeders who have to culture live algae to feed their food animals.
And lastly,I got a Moina starter from Algagen,and found some A.salinus mixed with them.So customers who bought Moina rejoyce,you might have purchased two good starters for the price of one! :wink:
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby Luis A M » Tue Feb 12, 2013 11:16 pm

An interest paper about this copepod. :!:

http://plankt.oxfordjournals.org/conten ... 3.full.pdf
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby dcartier » Mon Jun 03, 2013 6:28 pm

angi wrote:I am keeping mine since some years in different tanks with 8 ppm to 40 ppm. They reproduce well in all tanks :-) I have them in outdoor tanks. They survive our severe winters with temperatures up to minus 26 degrees. As soon as there are temperatures of approx. 8° degrees Celsius, they are active again. I have breed seahorses for years with that. And I achieve an over-life quota of roughly 100 per cent with this food. So the nutritional value seems to be extremely good.


I find your mention of breeding these out doors intriguing. The fact that they are able to survive -26C is quite surprising. Would you be willing to elaborate a bit on your methods and what pitfalls you may have had to worked around?

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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby angi » Mon Jun 10, 2013 5:45 am

Hello Dennis

my method is very simple. Take a great koi plastic tank or WBL (whiskey barrel liner), build these in the half shadow in the garden, fill with seawater, wait 2 or 3 days and inoculate with 1 bottle PhycoPure (You can take of course own growed algae how Chaetoceros, Isochrysis, Tetraselmis, Phaeodactylum or a mix from it. I am using only PhycoPure because I am a AlgaGen distributor and I am mostly too lazy to grow algae of my own). Then inoculate with 1 or 2 litres Tangerines. Ready! Now You need only to wait until population of copepods is great enough for harvesting. The alga cells propagate just like the copepods.

Sometimes there are falling pollen, leaves and insects into the tanks. No worry. And after some time there are growing seaweeds. If there is too much organic material in the tank, You can remove some manually. The salt density sways naturally during the year.
If it has rained much, it is low. After many sunny weeks it is high.

You need to feed the tanks from time to time with new algae. Even if I feed only 3 or 4 times a year, the cultures are running.
So I can harvest from April to October, some years with mild weather until November or December (but the harvest will be small then, because daylight length is too short). January, February, March the water in the tanks is frozen. As soon as it melts - here in the end of March/beginning of April - and the temperatures usually are 7 or 8 degrees here again, the copepods come back.

That´s all. How I said - very simple :)))
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby Luis A M » Mon Jun 10, 2013 12:36 pm

Thanks Angi for the culture instructions.I also keep outside cultures and found that the copepods vanish in the peak of winter and come back in spring,probably from resting eggs.
Of course Angi´s reference to minus 26ºC is about air temp.Liquid water can not go much beyond 0ºC. :wink:
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby angi » Mon Jun 10, 2013 4:13 pm

Luis A M wrote:Thanks Angi for the culture instructions.I also keep outside cultures and found that the copepods vanish in the peak of winter and come back in spring,probably from resting eggs.
Of course Angi´s reference to minus 26ºC is about air temp.Liquid water can not go much beyond 0ºC. :wink:

In winter the water is not liquid here - it is a complete frozen. Sure, they throw up resting eggs. The first in september...
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby dcartier » Sat Jun 15, 2013 7:53 pm

That's amazing Angi. I would have never thought that you could grow these outside. Especially in a climate like Germany (or Canada!!). Do you bury the pond liner/barrel or just resting on the ground? I guess if you buried the barrel partially in the ground you may be able to culture copepods from more northerly regions (like Calanus finmarchicus from the Bay of Fundy which coincidentally I was just reading about today).

Do you have to keep adding phyto or can you add fertilizer to keep the algae growing?

Thanks for a great idea. I might just try this.

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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby angi » Fri Jun 28, 2013 8:13 am

No, I dig nothing in.
The containers are open on the ground.
At heavy rain sometimes single food shrimps or Mysis reach into the copepods container.
Enough "dirt" has the algae nutrients produce these with that.
In addition, insects often fall into the containers and drown.
Or single leaves.
Enough nutrients are always that way for the phytoplankton.
Only at the first start of a fresh tank You have to give a little f/2 medium.
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby picci » Fri Mar 13, 2015 10:23 am

Do you think this pod can be a substitution of brine shrimps? I would like to totally skip brine shrimps for larvae.
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby angi » Fri Mar 13, 2015 10:35 am

These pods are not as big as brine shrimps. When I needed larger food, I took small Mysis. Before I fed exclusively pods.
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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby dcartier » Sun Aug 16, 2015 2:44 pm

I just wanted to post an update to this thread. I decided to try this technique of growing Tangerines outside. I don't have a need for them currently, though my clowns did just start spawning, but thought I just had to try this. So in early June I setup a new 77L (20 G) rubbermaid garbage outside on the west side of my house. I filled it about 3/4 if the way with fresh saltwater and added some F/2 along with some Phycopure and Docs Ecobites (Nano, Tahitian ISO, Tetraselmis). After about a week I added 1 bag of Tangerines. Then I went on vacation in Europe for a couple of weeks.

During the month of July, I pretty much ignored the culture. I think I added water once (from the tap) when it looked like it was getting a bit low. I recently purchased a decent microscope, so I thought I would use some water from the barrel as a test. I saw plenty of algae/organic material in the drop of water on the slide, but not a pod anywhere.

Then last week, I scooped out about 1/2 cup of water just to see if I could see anything (with a sample larger than a single drop this time). I was not expecting to see much. The first thing I noticed is that the water looks dark in the barrel, but when you look at in a smaller sample, it is only slightly tinted green/brown. The other thing that was apparent was that the sample was swarming with pods! I was a bit shocked at how many were visible to the naked eye. I returned the sample to the barrel pleased with the result and decided to keep checking it periodically.

Looking back over my notes collected from this thread, I realized that I should have been adding algae periodically, but not wanting to spend any more on this experiment, I instead added 1 ML more of F/2 mid week.

This morning I scooped out another sample, this time with a magnifying glass on hand, and as before the sample was swarming with pods. I could even see a number that appeared to be quite red.

I plan on letting this run until next year, I want to see if they will come back on their own. Hopefully I will remember to add algae in the spring.

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Re: Arctodiaptomus salinus-aka "Tangerines"

Postby Luis A M » Wed Aug 19, 2015 3:16 pm

Congrats!You found a successful culture method.Sometimes the less you care,the better it goes :wink: While other people would fail using the same recipe.
Tangerines,same as Moina,produce resting eggs,and their population shows ups and downs.
These pods are too large for clown larvae,you must start breeding seahorses and pipes.Or else offer your pods for sale! 8)
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